Neuro-Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who specialize in neurological conditions affecting vision. Common problems seen by neuro-ophthalmologists include diseases of the optic nerve and afferent visual system, double vision or other problems with ocular movements and the pupillary anomalies. Diseases commonly seen by neuro-ophthalmologists include optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic disc edema, ocular myasthenia gravis, brain tumors or strokes, pseudotumor cerebri, unexplained visual loss, headaches, and double vision.
Some surgical neuro-ophthalmologist may treat strabismus and perform eye muscle surgeries or optic nerve fenestration surgery for the treatment of Idiopathic intracranial hypertension(pseudotumor cerebri. Other neuro-ophthalmologist may treat blephrospam or hemifacial spasm using botulinum toxin injections. Neuro-ophthalmologists are medical doctors who initially specialize in either neurology or ophthalmology or both , then do subspecialty training, through fellowships, in the complementary field.
They are usually full-time faculty at large university-based medical centers, where they also do research and teach but may be engaged in private practice. Their referrals may come from neurologists, ophthalmologists, endocrinologists, neurosurgeons and cardiologists. Neuro-ophthalmologists typically attend to diseases of the afferent visual system (most often involving the optic nerve), the efferent visual system (that controls eye movements), or the pupillary reflexes.